5G Technology Explained with Advantages and Disadvantages

5G technology is the fifth-generation technology for wireless communications that have low latency and also offers greater stability.

For more than a couple of years now, you are hearing about 5G technology. Many of you might already be using it and some of you may be eagerly waiting for the 5G technology to launch at your location.


And, if you are eagerly waiting like me for the 5G technology to launch, then you would want to know what 5G technology is all about and what all you can do using this technology.

In this article I had tried to explain about 5G technology in 10 points, let us start with the first point.

Table of Contents
1) What is 5G technology?
2) Which country invented 5G?
3) How does 5G technology work?
4) What is 5G speed?
5) What is the difference between 4G and 5G? 
6) What 5G can do?
7) Advantages of 5G technology?
8) Disadvantages of 5G technology?
9) 5G network in India
10) Conclusion

1. What is 5G technology?

This next-generation technology has the ability to connect with more devices at once and is 10 times faster compared to 4G LTE.

Just think, you are playing a graphic-intensive game like PubG, Call of Duty, or Fortnight using a VR headset in real-time with zero to no lag at all using your phone, while traveling in a self-driven car that's going at a speed of over 200 km per hour, using 5G technology.

Hold Yourself!

Because of the future of gaming and everything else is about to change forever.

If you look up into the corner of your phone, you're probably used to seeing a little indicator that says 4G LTE or 3G or 2G. And you've come to understand that, it probably has something to do with your phone's connection.

The connection has become faster with every new generation of wireless technology.

You are aware that the G stands for each new wireless technology generation and each subsequent generation refers to a specific minimum speed, connectivity, and reliability.

Let’s classify each network as a particular:

Using 1G technology you used to communicate with your friends and family living far away.

With 2G technology, you were able to send text messages.

By using 3G technology you were able to access the Internet from your phone, which was a distant dream with 1G and up to a certain extent with 2G.

Then came 4G technology which made the Internet a whole lot faster, and that is one of the reasons, many of you might have started to use your mobile phone more compared to your computer.

But. We are not stopping here - as 4G technology would soon be our past.

The 5G technology is almost here, which would be faster, more reliable and you would be able to do lots of exciting stuff using this new technology.

Are you excited?

Do you know, which country invented the 5G technology? Let’s find it out…

2. Which country invented 5G?

5G technology was not invented by a single person, company, or country. It would be more appropriate to say that this technology was developed in a collaboration of the seven 3GPP Organizational Partners - from Asia, Europe, and North America.

The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (also known as 3GPP), is an association of seven national and regional telecommunication standards organizations as primary members, which develops protocols for mobile telecommunications.

The 3GPP Organizational Partners have worked together to develop the existing 5G technology.

3. How does 5G technology work?

5G technology uses a cell site, (cell tower or cell stations where antennas and electronic communications equipment are placed to transmit or receive digital signals) that is divided into sectors and sends encoded data through radio waves.

Each cell site must be connected to the network backend, via a wired or wireless connection.

The 5G network uses a technique called OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing - which is a type of digital transmission), that is similar to 4G technology.

However, the air interface of 5G technology is designed for much lower latency and greater flexibility compared to 4G technology.

Similar to 4G airwaves, the 5G airwaves would get about 30 percent better speeds

Thanks to more efficient encoding, and the lighting speed you hear about the 5G technology, because the 5G is designed to use much larger channels (communication path between two systems or devices) compared to 4G technology.

Meanwhile, the majority of 4G channels are 20MHz, which are bonded together up to 160MHz at a time.

Whereas, the 5G channels are 100MHz, which could be bonded together up to 800MHz at a time. That's a much broader highway, but it also requires larger, clear blocks of airwaves than were available for 4G networks.


The purpose of 5G technology is to have far greater speed bundled with higher capacity and low latency than 4G technology.

Many technology companies are working to achieve speed up to 20Gbps with 1 millisecond (ms) latency (the delay before a transfer of data begins) and I am hoping that this aim is achieved.

4. What is 5G speed?

Well, first of all, it's really fast like 20 gigabits per second over wireless. So right now, you might be streaming one Netflix movie in HD with 4G technology, but using 5G, you would be able to stream 400 movies in 8K at the same time.

That really sounds impressive! Isn’t it?

However, the most impressive part of 5G is the speed at which it sends and receives the data with close to no latency.

If you are using camera-mounted drones with 5G technology, you would be able to get faster and more reliable — almost real-time video footage which would provide you with improved safety and security of your home and office.

5. What is the difference between 4G and 5G?

Before I share the difference between 4G and 5G speed, let me tell you that the reaction time for a normal human being is about 200 to 300 milliseconds.

Now, the speed difference between 4G and 5G...

With 4G, the reaction time is about 100 to 200 milliseconds and it is faster by 100 milliseconds compared to human reaction speed.

But, the 5G technology brings the reaction time down to just 1 millisecond. Yes, you read that right! It’s just 1 millisecond.

That's almost real-time.

The 4G is capable of reaching an average downloading speed of 20 Mbps, whereas, 5G is capable of reaching speeds of 500 Mbps to 1500 Mbps.

Crazy Yeah!

6. What 5G can do?

With 5G technology, you'll be able to interact with people, objects, or characters controlled by someone else in real-time.

You would be thrilled to know what all you would be able to do using 5G technology, let's check them out.

a. Self-Driving Cars

The biggest breakthrough in 5G technology is self-driving cars. All the self-driving cars would send data between each other and communicate with traffic lights, road sensors, aerial drones, and so on.

We humans, our reaction speed is 200 milliseconds and we still have accidents every day, and this happens across the world.

Now just think, that your car using 5G technology would be able to react and communicate with hundreds of cars around it, all just in a millisecond, not only would we curb the car accidents, we could also end traffic problems across the globe.

Thousands of self-driving cars using 5G technology are going at lightning-fast speed to their destinations.

There might be no risk of you hitting someone because all these cars know where they are in real-time, and they all are reacting to the actual world around them.

Similarly, this technology can also be used for Airplanes, trains, ships, delivery trucks for faster transportation of humans and goods from one end of the world to the other.

In fact, if you leave aside the transportation vehicle and just think of drones and robots using 5G technology.

b. Automated Drones

Just imagine, you have automated your drones using 5G technology to work in your agriculture field. You have a fleet of drones that are flying over your field of crops and they are using their sensors to sow seeds, pick grown feed, or water the plants.

How cool would that be?

c. Virtual Reality

Using 5G technology with Virtual Reality (VR), you would be able to play interactive games with anyone (as if they are there with you), even if they are on the other side of the world.


d. Remotely Controlling Robots

Remotely controlling robots using 5G technology, you would be able to use robots as staff in your factory, and they would be able to do their designated tasks by communicating with each other in real-time.

This would not only increase your operational efficiency, but it would also increase the safety of your workers and this would also decrease your operational costs as well.

7. Advantages of 5G technology

5G would be capable of reaching speeds of around 500 to 1500 Mbps — pretty much instantly, whereas the average download speed of 4G is around 20 Mbps.

You would be impressed by being able to download a movie from Netflix within seconds.

Also, self-driven cars could be a reality in the near future, with the help of 5G.

From automating your drone, to remotely controlling robots, and playing interactive games using VR would be fun — Thanks to 5G technology!

Our world would have 30 billion or maybe more connected devices by the end of 2020.

The usage of the internet is expected to keep growing and our already congested spectrum bands are only going to get worse.

This would lead to breakdowns in service that could be disastrous when self-driven vehicles are on the road or in some healthcare scenarios.

Tapping into 5G technology would allow more capacity for multiple devices to be used at once in the same area (a 5G mobile tower could handle a hundred more unique devices than a 4G one).

5G towers would be of smaller size, and the small size would help in setting up the towers in different locations easily.

In urban areas, that might mean 5G towers would be on every lamppost. Ultimately improvement to coverage would depend on carriers expanding mobile towers.

8. Disadvantages of 5G technology

The main disadvantage of 5G technology is its range, which isn’t great.

Say, you are walking down the street, suddenly there is obstruction by a tree or a building, and your phone would lose the 5G connection.

To avoid this, all the telecom service providers would be required to install many smaller cellular antennas, so that all the areas can get 5G signals.

Some residents across the world are already resisting the installations, many of which will be near their homes, expressing concerns that these small antennas would emit harmful electromagnetic waves.

The implementation costs of 5G and its infrastructure, plus maintenance costs are a big concern.

And as always, you can expect that — You "The customer" will bear the brunt of these costs.

Since 5G needs more investment in infrastructure; as it has a higher frequency than 4G, so the coverage will decrease significantly.

Hence more towers will be required, which will make it infeasible, as 4G Macro cells give coverage of 2 Kms and 5G coverage is just 500 to 800 meters.

9. 5G network in India

In India, Jio had partnered with Samsung and Airtel partnered with Huawei to conduct 5G trials.

Vodafone and Idea were to partner with Huawei, ZTE, Ericsson, and Nokia, whereas BSNL was supposed to partner with ZTE for their 5G trials.

As you are aware of the current pandemic, which has not only resulted in a national lockdown but also a global lockdown that has adversely affected the supply of 5G equipment.

Also, with the on-going current tense situation between India and China, the Government of India is planning to ban all the Chinese 5G equipment providers from participating in the auction of the 5G spectrum.

This would further delay the plan of telecom providers from upgrading and enhancing their 5G network in India. Hence, 5G service is unlikely to launch before 2022.

So, all the Indians out there, you can wait for the time being, before you jump to buy a new 5G mobile.

10. Conclusion

As a coin has two sides, 5G technology has its share of Pros and Cons.

Even with its Cons, most people around the world are eagerly waiting for the launch of 5G technology and some of you might be desperate to get their hands on this high-speed technology.

With 5G technology, you will not only get 10 times faster speed compared to 4G technology. You would also be able to play graphic-intensive games while traveling in a self-driven car, that is going at a super-fast speed.

You would be able to stream hundreds of movies at once in 8K, and also would be able to take advantage of faster transportation across all the continents.

Being said that, we need to keep in mind the Cons it would bring along with it.

The major Con of 5G technology is its range, your mobile would lose its signal strength if the network is obstructed by any tree or building.

To tackle this obstruction issue, telecom providers would be required to invest heavily to install more towers at short distances.

This would add to the cost of infrastructure and maintenance, and some of the costs would be passed by the telecom provider to us — the consumers.

With more 5G towers or antennas being installed, there would always be a concern about the emission of harmful electromagnetic waves, which would affect all the living beings on this planet.

So, after knowing about the 5G technology, would you be willing to use it once it is launched?

If you are already using 5G, do share your experience with me and also share the points that I might have missed to share in this article.

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